OSSEC: Agentless scripts

In my last OSSEC post OSSEC: Agentless to save the day I went over how to setup agentless monitoring using the built in scripts. With this post I am going to get into the details of how to modify the OSSEC supplied scripts to do your bidding.

Table of Contents

ossec_logo

Agentless Scripts

All scripts that work with OSSEC agentless security monitoring use stdout for communication and reporting to the OSSEC server. This makes writing scripts for OSSEC simple as you do not need to do anything more then print or echo to stdout. The format of the output does need to meet the OSSEC specification, but that is a very simple thing to do.

Before we move to the specification details I need to explain that OSSEC agentless runs to different types of scripts. Namely the following:

Type Description
periodic_diff Scripts output data to the OSSEC agentless process that will then be compared to past runs and if there are differences an OSSEC alert will be generated.
periodic Scripts output controlled messages to the OSSEC agentless process that will then be processed accordingly.

Periodic diff Specification

The output for periodic_diff is very simple, any and all output after the agentless command “STORE: now” and before the next OSSEC Command will be stored and compared for differences. This type of script is mostly used for hardware devices such as Cisco IOS, Juniper JunOS, and other products.

Scripts that use the periodic_diff make use of the following commands:

Command Description
INFO: The string following INFO will be logged to /var/ossec/logs/ossec.log by OSSEC for debugging.
ERROR: Error needs to be reported. The string following this command is forwarded to the OSSEC manager, and the OSSEC process closes down the script.
STORE: All the lines that follows this command will be added stored and compared to previous runs of the script

Here is an example of a periodic_diff script that comes with OSSEC. (Please note with all agentless scripts you must be in the root of the OSSEC install for them to function correctly.)

obsd46#( cd /var/ossec && ./agentless/ssh_pixconfig_diff [email protected] 'show hardware' )
spawn ssh -c des [email protected]
No valid ciphers for protocol version 2 given, using defaults.
Password: 

a.zfw.tss>INFO: Starting.
enable
Password: 
a.zfw.tss#ok on enable pass

STORE: now
no pager
             ^
% Invalid input detected at '^' marker.

a.zfw.tss#term len 0
a.zfw.tss#terminal pager 0
                     ^
% Invalid input detected at '^' marker.

a.zfw.tss#show version | grep -v Configuration last| up
                         ^
% Invalid input detected at '^' marker.

a.zfw.tss#show running-config
Building configuration...


Current configuration : 14631 bytes
!
version 12.4

[................SNIP CONFIG.................]

a.zfw.tss#show hardware
Cisco IOS Software, 3800 Software (C3845-ADVENTERPRISEK9-M), Version 12.4(24)T1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2009 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Fri 19-Jun-09 19:21 by prod_rel_team

ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.3(11r)T2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

a.zfw.tss uptime is 1 week, 5 days, 7 hours, 29 minutes
System returned to ROM by reload at 13:34:26 UTC Thu Oct 22 2009
System image file is "flash:c3845-adventerprisek9-mz.124-24.T1.bin"


This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United
States and local country laws governing import, export, transfer and
use. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply
third-party authority to import, export, distribute or use encryption.
Importers, exporters, distributors and users are responsible for
compliance with U.S. and local country laws. By using this product you
agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. If you are unable
to comply with U.S. and local laws, return this product immediately.

A summary of U.S. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at:

http://www.cisco.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.html

If you require further assistance please contact us by sending email to
[email protected]

Cisco 3845 (revision 1.0) with 1007615K/40960K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID FTX1043A2CR
2 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces
1 ATM interface
1 Virtual Private Network (VPN) Module
4 CEM T1/E1 ports
DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity enabled.
479K bytes of NVRAM.
492015K bytes of USB Flash usbflash0 (Read/Write)
62720K bytes of ATA System CompactFlash (Read/Write)

Configuration register is 0x2102


a.zfw.tss#exit
Connection to 172.17.0.1 closed by remote host.
Connection to 172.17.0.1 closed.

INFO: Finished.

In this example above the script would store the contents between “STORE: now” and “INFO: Finished.“. If this is the first time that OSSEC agentless has run this command no alerts would be generated and the contents would have been saved for later comparisons. If OSSEC agentless has a stored copy from a previous execution it will compare the files and if there are any differences it will generate an alert.

Periodic Specification

The periodic specification has more options and gives more control to the script writer on what actions OSSEC will take. Once again stdout is used for communication so script writing is easy.

Command Description
INFO: The string following INFO will be logged to /var/ossec/logs/ossec.log by OSSEC for debugging.
ERROR: Error needs to be reported. The string following this command is forwarded to the OSSEC manager, and the OSSEC process closes down the script.
FWD: The string following FWD is a colon delimited list of stats on a given file.

Example of real FWD: command.

FWD: 19419:600:0:0:fb30de5b02029950ae05885a3d407c8c:017cd6118cdc166ee8eba8af1b7fdad6763203d3 ./.bash_history

The Fields break down in to the following

Field Description
FWD: The OSSEC Command
19419 Total size of file, in bytes
600 Access rights of file in octal
0 User ID of file owner
0 Group ID of file owner
fb30de5b02029950ae05885a3d407c8c MD5 Hash of file
017cd6118cdc166ee8eba8af1b7fdad6763203d3 SHA1 Hash of file
./.bash_history Path and name of file

Using this format OSSEC can store the information about a file and then in the future run compare that they are the same. If for some reason they are not the same an alert will be generated. Here is an example of a password change on a linux system:

OSSEC HIDS Notification.
2009 Sep 21 15:19:00

Received From: (ssh_integrity_check_linux) root@172.17.20.20->syscheck
Rule: 550 fired (level 7) -> "Integrity checksum changed."
Portion of the log(s):

Integrity checksum changed for: '/etc/shadow'
Old md5sum was: '0d92e12c92f3edcf9d8876ea57c5f677'
New md5sum is : '2bd51b61dea17c5682fb2c0cf4f92c63'
Old sha1sum was: '2270c03a920ef8dd50e11cefdef046a8660f7a29'
New sha1sum is : 'd9518ea9022b10d07f81925c6d7f2abb4364b548'

--END OF NOTIFICATION

Agentless Script: ssh_integrity_check_linux

Now that we have an understanding of how agentless scripts communicate with the parent OSSEC preocess, let’s move on to a working example. The OSSEC supplied script ssh_integrity_check_linux is a great place to start, so lets open it up and see what is going on.

obsd46# cat /var/ossec/agentless/ssh_integrity_check_linux
 #!/usr/bin/env expect

 # @(#) $Id: ssh_integrity_check_linux,v 1.11 2009/06/24 17:06:21 dcid Exp $
 # Agentless monitoring
 #
 # Copyright (C) 2009 Trend Micro Inc.
 # All rights reserved.
 #
 # This program is a free software; you can redistribute it
 # and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
 # License (version 3) as published by the FSF - Free Software
 # Foundation.


 # Main script.
source "agentless/main.exp"


 # SSHing to the box and passing the directories to check.
if [catch {
    spawn ssh $hostname
} loc_error] {
    send_user "ERROR: Opening connection: $loc_error.\n"
    exit 1;
}


source $sshsrc
source $susrc

set timeout 600
send "echo \"INFO: Starting.\"; for i in `find $args 2>/dev/null`;do tail \$i >/dev/null 2>&1 && 
md5=`md5sum \$i | cut -d \" \" -f 1` && sha1=`sha1sum \$i | cut -d \" \" -f
 1` && echo FWD: `stat --printf \"%s:%a:%u:%g\" \$i`:\$md5:\$sha1 \$i; done; exit\r"
send "exit\r"

expect {
    timeout {
        send_user "ERROR: Timeout while running commands on host: $hostname .\n"
        exit 1;
    }
    eof {
        send_user "\nINFO: Finished.\n"
        exit 0;
    }
}

exit 0;

The comments in the script hints to what is going on, but everything up to and including set timeout 600 is related to setting up the expect functions and code for handling the ssh subprocess and connecting to the remote host. I am not going to spend any time with this section, I am just going to make use of it.

The meat of what is getting processed on the remote end all happens in two lines.

send "echo \"INFO: Starting.\"; for i in `find $args 2>/dev/null`;do tail \$i >/dev/null 2>&1 && 
md5=`md5sum \$i | cut -d \" \" -f 1` && sha1=`sha1sum \$i | cut -d \" \" -f
 1` && echo FWD: `stat --printf \"%s:%a:%u:%g\" \$i`:\$md5:\$sha1 \$i; done; exit\r"
send "exit\r"

Let’s break this down to see what is happening.

The send command pushes the following string to the ssh subprocess which gets run on the remote end of the connection. Before the script is sent to the remote host expect internally processes the string. This includes searching for variables and removing any control characters.

The control characters are first taken into account, and in the case of our example all escaped special characters are processed. \", \r, and \$ would be replaced with ", “carriage return“, and & respectively. The reason the escape characters are needed so that they will not interfere with expects own string processing and control. We will need to handle control characters in this way when we begin writing our own script.

While special characters were being handled by expect it also looked for variables to replace, in this case it will find $args and replace it with what ever arguments were passed to the script by the OSSEC agentless process. If we specified the following in /var/ossec/etc/ossec.conf the $args variable would be replaced with “/bin /etc /sbin“.

  <agentless>
    <type>ssh_integrity_check_linux</type>
    <frequency>3600</frequency>
    <host>[email protected]</host>
    <state>periodic</state>
    <arguments>/bin /etc /sbin</arguments>
  </agentless>

Back to the commands that get run. Once expect has completed replacement we are left with this command.

echo "INFO: Starting."; for i in `find /bin /etc /sbin 2>/dev/null`;do tail $i >/dev/null 2>&1 && 
md5=`md5sum $i | cut -d " " -f 1` && sha1=`sha1sum $i | cut -d " " -f
 1` && echo FWD: `stat --printf "%s:%a:%u:%g" $i`:$md5:$sha1 $i; done; exit
exit

This script then goes and uses the Unix find command to locate all files in the specified path (from the arguments passed) and generates an OSSEC FWD: command for each one and prints it to stdout. Making use of the commands stat, md5sum, and sha1sum to generate the data needed. Here is an example of the output checking.

spawn ssh [email protected]
Last login: Wed Nov  4 11:32:51 2009 from 172.17.20.131^M
[linux26 ~]# 
INFO: Started.
echo "INFO: Starting."; for i in `find {/bin /etc /sbin} 2>/dev/null`;do tail $i >/dev/null 2>&1 && 
md5=`md5sum $i | cut -d " " -f 1` && sha1=`sh a1sum $i | cut -d " " -f
 1` && echo FWD: `stat --printf "%s:%a:%u:%g" $i`:$md5:$sha1 $i; done; exit
INFO: Starting.
FWD: 833:644:0:0:4148adea745af5121963f6b731b60013:60877a6f6981b16c0d53d32bcd3f07d41cfb5bd4 /etc/modprobe.d/
glib2.sh
[...........SNIP............]
FWD: 1696:644:0:0:c2bd306b205ad9e81fb02ce6b225d384:5244d65815cb228a4fac7bc4c1c7774508fb7505 /etc/nsswitch.conf
FWD: 85179:644:0:0:8db574225cd1068b47e77ceccd96f8ff:b5ef6183b35ee9d1b66ed2cefe98003c5bd99192 /etc/sensors.conf
FWD: 49:644:0:0:52c3df2f1edf30ca3db82174be3a68d2:1934648f2429b70b1f729d343a6956fb0ea73136 /etc/php.d/imap.ini
FWD: 873:644:0:0:04559d1fe27ecd079b69df8b319f937e:e5cab1bf1f9e4bc4386309f4e00a9b7be3e543a2 /etc/php.d/memcache.ini
FWD: 59:644:0:0:94636ba6c4bac9d8d49d9de1a513ae0c:41d5164a2c6e332e40edf55c59a2d0df8a260964 /etc/php.d/pdo_mysql.ini
FWD: 49:644:0:0:917dbbafbfaaa20f660063d627123dae:0e829d4ffc69f58dc258510b4b8452412e31ccc5 /etc/php.d/json.ini
FWD: 0:644:0:0:d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e:da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709 /etc/wvdial.conf
logout
Connection to 172.17.20.20 closed.

INFO: Finished.

Our own Agentless Script: ssh_dmz_linux

Using the built in OSSEC agentless scripts are great, but sometimes we need more focused scanning and checking. So let’s modify the ssh_integrity_check_linux for our environment.

The goals for this new script will be to watch for changes to files based on the following criteria:

  • All setuid and setgid files
  • All files related to authentication (including .htaccess and ssh files)
  • All application specific files (apache, ssh)

Finding all setuid and setgid files

Let’s first start by identifying a method to locate all files with their setuid or setgid bits enabled. To do this we will ssh to the host 172.17.20.20 and use find to locate the files.

obsd46# sudo -u ossec ssh [email protected]
[linux26 ~]# find / -type f \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) 
/sbin/umount.nfs
/sbin/netreport
/sbin/unix_chkpwd
/sbin/mount.nfs
/sbin/pam_timestamp_check
/sbin/mount.nfs4
/sbin/umount.nfs4
/bin/ping6
/bin/su
/bin/umount
/bin/ping
/bin/mount
/lib/dbus-1/dbus-daemon-launch-helper
/usr/libexec/openssh/ssh-keysign
/usr/libexec/utempter/utempter
/usr/sbin/usernetctl
/usr/sbin/postqueue
/usr/sbin/userhelper
/usr/sbin/userisdnctl
/usr/sbin/postdrop
/usr/sbin/suexec
/usr/bin/chsh
/usr/bin/chfn
/usr/bin/sudo
/usr/bin/locate
/usr/bin/wall
/usr/bin/sudoedit
/usr/bin/gpasswd
/usr/bin/lockfile
/usr/bin/newgrp
/usr/bin/write
/usr/bin/screen
/usr/bin/passwd
/usr/bin/chage
/usr/bin/sperl5.8.8
/usr/bin/crontab
/usr/bin/ssh-agent

Finding all files related to authentication and applications specific files

Finding all files with setuid and setgid was simple, but finding all files related to authentication is more invloved. This of course will vary from system to system, but this should be good starting point.

obsd46# sudo -u ossec ssh [email protected]
[linux26 ~]# find / \( -name ".ssh" -o -name "ssh" -o -name "sshd" -o -name "httpd" -o -name ".htaccess" 
-o -name "pam.d" \) -exec find {} \;
/var/www/html/admin/modules/framework/var/www/html/admin/modules/.htaccess
/etc/httpd
/etc/httpd/conf
/etc/httpd/conf.d
/etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.d/proxy_ajp.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.d/README
/etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/magic
/etc/httpd/logs
/etc/httpd/modules
/etc/httpd/run
/etc/logrotate.d/httpd
/etc/pam.d
/etc/pam.d/authconfig
[...................SNIP PAM Files.....................]
/etc/pam.d/system-config-network-cmd
/etc/pam.d/vsftpd
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd
/etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd
/etc/ssh
/etc/ssh/ssh_config
/etc/ssh/sshd_config
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_key
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
/etc/sysconfig/httpd
/root/.ssh
/root/.ssh/authorized_keys
/usr/bin/ssh
/usr/lib/httpd
/usr/lib/httpd/modules
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/libphp5.so
[...................SNIP Apache modules................]

/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_vhost_alias.so
/usr/sbin/httpd
/usr/sbin/sshd
/usr/src/tbm-pbxconfig-5.5.1/amp_conf/htdocs/admin/modules/framework/htdocs/admin/modules/.htaccess
/usr/src/tbm-pbxconfig-5.5.1/amp_conf/htdocs/admin/modules/.htaccess
/var/empty/sshd
/var/empty/sshd/etc
/var/empty/sshd/etc/localtime
/var/www/html/admin/modules/framework/var/www/html/admin/modules/.htaccess
/var/www/html/admin/modules/.htaccess

Merging finds

Now we have two basic find methods that identify the files we want to monitor for changes, but our finds were a little greedy so we should create a way to strip out unwanted files from the list. As this is a unix system egrep is the king for finding or removing items from a list. To simplify things we can use egrep with the -v command line argument which tells egrep NOT to print any matching items.

Just to make sure that we do not end up double processing files we can make use of the sort command with -u argument to remove any duplicates.

Here is how we would put together both finds, egrep, and sort to locate and filter what is needed.

(find / -type f \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) && \find / \( -name ".ssh" -o -name "ssh" -o -name "sshd" 
-o -name "httpd" -o -name ".htaccess" -o -name "pam.d" \) -exec find {} \; ) 2>/dev/null | egrep 
-v "known_hosts|moduli|var\/log|var\/lock" | sort -u

The above command we have found all files and paths that we would like to monitor, but this still needs to be integrated into a script on the OSSEC server.

Creating ssh_dmz_linux

We don’t want to make changes to ssh_integrity_check_linux directly so we will need to make a copy.

obsd46# (cd /var/ossec/agentless && cp ssh_integrity_check_linux ssh_dmz_linux)

Integrating our new command line into the script we must pay close attention to special characters that expect will process. Due to this we will need to escape all / and " by proceeding them with \. Once we are done escaping we just insert our new line in place of find $args 2>/dev/null in our new file.

Here is what the completed script will look like.

obsd56# cat /var/ossec/agentless/ssh_dmz_linux
 #!/usr/bin/env expect

 # @(#) $Id: ssh_integrity_check_linux,v 1.11 2009/06/24 17:06:21 dcid Exp $
 # Agentless monitoring
 #
 # Copyright (C) 2009 Trend Micro Inc.
 # All rights reserved.
 # 
 # This program is a free software; you can redistribute it
 # and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
 # License (version 3) as published by the FSF - Free Software
 # Foundation.


 # Main script.
source "agentless/main.exp"


 # SSHing to the box and passing the directories to check.
if [catch {
    spawn ssh $hostname
} loc_error] {
    send_user "ERROR: Opening connection: $loc_error.\n"
    exit 1;
}


source $sshsrc
source $susrc

set timeout 600
send "echo \"INFO: Starting.\"; for i in `(find / \\( -name \".ssh\" -o -name \"ssh\" -o -name \"sshd\" 
-o -name \"httpd\" -o -name \".htaccess\" -o -name \"pam.d\" \\) -exec find {} \\; && find / -type f 
\\( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \\); ) 2>/dev/null | egrep -v \"known_hosts|moduli|var\\/log|var\\/lock\" | sort -u`;
do tail \$i >/dev/null 2>&1 && md5=`md5sum \$i | cut -d \" \" -f 1` && sha1=`sha1sum \$i | cut -d \" \" 
-f 1` && echo FWD: `stat --printf \"%s:%a:%u:%g\" \$i`:\$md5:\$sha1 \$i; done; exit\r"
send "exit\r"

expect {
    timeout {
        send_user "ERROR: Timeout while running commands on host: $hostname .\n"
        exit 1;
    }
    eof {
        send_user "\nINFO: Finished.\n"
        exit 0;
    }
}

exit 0;

Testing

Before we add this new script to OSSEC configuration we need to test it.

obsd46# (cd /var/ossec && sudo -u ossec ./agentless/ssh_dmz_linux [email protected] )

ERROR: ssh_integrity_check <hostname> <arguments>

Due to not making use of the of the $arg variable in the way that ssh_integrity_check_linux wants use too, this caused this the problem above. Solving this problem would require making changes to files that will effect other built in scripts. So a quick solution is to just pass anything as an argument to the script. This will have no effect on our script as we do not make use of the $arg variable.

obsd46# (cd /var/ossec && sudo -u ossec ./agentless/ssh_dmz_linux [email protected] NOTUSED)
spawn ssh [email protected]
Last login: Wed Nov  4 13:46:32 2009 from 172.17.20.131^M
[linux26 ~]#  
INFO: Started.
echo "INFO: Starting."; for i in `(find / \( -name ".ssh" -o -name "ssh" -o -name "sshd" -o -name "httpd" 
-o -name ".htaccess" -o -name "pam.d" \)  -exec find {} \; && find / -type f \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 
\); ) 2>/dev/null | egrep -v "known_hosts|moduli|var\/log|var\/lock"`;do tail $i >/dev/null 2>&1 &&
 md5=`md5s ^Mum $i | cut -d " " -f 1` && sha1=`sha1sum $i | cut -d " " -f 1` && echo FWD: `stat --printf 
"%s:%a:%u:%g" $i`:$md5:$sha1 $i; done; exit
INFO: Starting.
FWD: 14:775:100:101:3bc0a3e92f8170084dd102eda9a474b1:25a1783a3c6bdd9745ec245ec1bfa0414ee05d23 /var/www/html/admin/modules/.htaccessmodules/.htaccess
FWD: 3519:644:0:0:e4ca381035a34b7a852184cc0dd89baa:6e43d0b5a46ed5ba78da5c7e9dcf319b27d769e7 /var/empty/sshd/etc/localtime
FWD: 560:644:0:0:58370830ecfa056421ad21aff9c18905:d115bb5aeefaab97c53fbbd5df84ebcb9170d796 /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf
[...................SNIP.............................]
FWD: 392:644:0:0:e92bea7e9d70a9ecdc61edd7c0a2f59a:d77b61dac010c60589b4d8a2039e3b8a5bed18b2 /etc/httpd/conf.d/README
FWD: 70888:4711:0:0:9046bd13339e7ef22266067b633e601a:3fc41029ddb14fe4ed613f479fa9e89c944f04dd /usr/bin/sperl5.8.8
FWD: 315416:6755:0:0:4c63a9709fb7f0f97c30aa29d204859c:c379efa658de72866b8f6de5767906ff78d127b0 /usr/bin/crontab
FWD: 88964:2755:0:99:baf3ebef6377d6ef42858776c33621b0:62394bf57d18c3fd49adeb39a1da61661cabc3c8 /usr/bin/ssh-agent
logout
Connection to 172.17.20.20 closed.

INFO: Finished.

Going live

We have created a new OSSEC agentless script and I am going to enable this script using the ossec-hids-tools that I introduced in my last post about ossec (OSSEC: Agentless to save the day). Also a restart of OSSEC will also be needed for the changes to take effect.

obsd46# ossec-config --section agentless --add --host [email protected] --type ssh_dmz_linux 
--state periodic --argv "NOTUSED"
obsd46# /var/ossec/bin/ossec-control restart                                                                                                        (root@jcli-1:/var/ossec)
Killing ossec-monitord .. 
Killing ossec-logcollector .. 
Killing ossec-remoted .. 
Killing ossec-syscheckd .. 
Killing ossec-analysisd .. 
Killing ossec-maild .. 
ossec-execd not running ..
Killing ossec-agentlessd .. 
OSSEC HIDS v2.2 Stopped
Starting OSSEC HIDS v2.2 (by Trend Micro Inc.)...
Started ossec-agentlessd...
Started ossec-maild...
Started ossec-execd...
Started ossec-analysisd...
Started ossec-logcollector...
Started ossec-remoted...
Started ossec-syscheckd...
Started ossec-monitord...
Completed.

Filed Under: AdministrationNetwork SecuritySecurity

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Comments (2)

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  1. Carlos says:

    Hi, And thanks for the really interesting posts!

    I have a question, I’m trying to run an agentless check, using either scripts or command lie to verify if the root passwd hash has changed since the last check. Command would be like: grep root /etc/shadow | awk -F: ‘{print $2}’

    But is hard to have OSSEC running it without issues, what’s the best approach? Create a simple shell script, distribute it and have expect running it and checking with generic diff perhaps?

    Thanks in advance, Carlos.

  2. Carlos says:

    BTW, If I check the syntax and command like this, it brings the right output:

    /var/ossec/agentless/ssh_generic_diff “user@remotehost” grep root /etc/shadow | awk -F: ‘{print $2}’

    It is not very elegant, any way to improve it a little? Thanks in advance, Carlos.